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Wild Cards: Part II Tamil Pdf Download

License and permit applications may be downloaded to your computer, printed, filled out, and mailed to Fish & Wildlife (see address below) or saved and submitted electronically. If there is no fee, permit applications and reports may also be emailed to:

Wild Cards: Part II tamil pdf download


The Park, as part of the highlands of eastern Africa encompasses a variety of habitats that supports a diversity of wildlife species. The habitat types include grassland, woodland, heather moorland and Afro-alpine vegetation [14, 15, 24]. Bale Mountain National Park is undoubtedly one of the most unique areas on earth, with the largest piece of Afro-alpine habitats with the second largest moist tropical forest and the only cloud forest in Ethiopia [16]. And it is an Important Bird Area of immense importance comprising more than 256 species of birds with seven endemics from the afro tropical highland biome species which represents 80% of the species making the area the richest site for this biome assemblage [1, 8, 16].

Wildlife damage to agricultural crops is a serious concern affecting much of the world today [30]. Primates are one of the most frequently cited crop pests [13], so primates and humans are always in potential conflict over crops. This conflict is particularly interesting in that it arises from a positive desire to contact monkeys and then people discover that the contact poses risks from bites, theft of non-provisioned food or more general health issues such as exposure to simian viruses [6]. The result was agreed with finding of [36] who reported that wheat (ripe and dried) was the most frequently eaten crop by crop raiding in West Africa. Study conducted in Rwandan Forest Fragment indicated that maize, potato, beans, cabbage, sweet potato and tomato were raided by wild animals [12].

Hence, common jackal and leopards could easily penetrate the fences and drag out the sheep and goat and any other animals. So, most of the predation by leopard happened during Both Night and Day Time but common jackal happened in day time and Spotted Hyena during happened in the night time within the settlement. This result is the same as with [25] that reported Leopard, Spotted Hyena and Common jackal were the major predators for domestic animals in and around Semen Mountains National park of Ethiopia. They were responsible for loss of Sheep, Goats, Oxen, Cows, Donkeys and Mules. Eight problematic wild animals in terms of domestic animal loss were identified in Chebera Churchura National Park southwestern part of Ethiopia [5]. Among those hazardous wild animals three of them i.e. Leopard, Jackal, and hyena were same with the present finding.

Therefore the researcher was concluded that Agricultural Expansion (30%) and human settlement (24%) are the major causes of human wildlife conflict in and around the study area (Figs. 3, 4, and 5), while poaching (4%) are the lowest cause of HWC. Recently there was agricultural practice and human settlement inside and outside the park. Similar sources for Human wildlife were reported from Tsavo Conservation Area, Kenya. Agricultural Expansion, human settlement, deforestation, illegal grass collection, poaching was reported as the main causes of Human wildlife conflicts [22]. Different causes for human wildlife conflict were reported from different parts of Africa. For instance, animal death, loss of human life, crop damage, and damage to property, injuries to people and wildlife, encroachment of forest areas for agriculture, developmental activities, and livestock grazing are some key reasons for increment of the conflict in countries such as Kenya, Namibia, Mozambique, Zambia and Nigeria [19].

Many traditional repelling techniques are fairly effective if formalized, but are labor intensive. But where an animal can be repelled adequately using conventional methods it seems in appropriate, and certainly not particularly cost effective to try to introduce more expensive techniques requiring greater technological input or backup [4]. Another approach that has been used successfully to manage Human wildlife conflict involves changing the perceptions of people experiencing the damage, thus, increasing their willingness to tolerate damage [35]. Agricultural producers already are receptive to this argument and appreciate the wildlife on their farms to enhance wildlife habitat and their tolerance for some wildlife damage. This tolerance can be enhanced by providing economic incentives [25].

Wildcard mask are used with network ID to filter the interfaces. Wildcard mask is different from subnet mask. Subnet mask is used to separate the network portion and host portion in IP address. While wildcard mask is used to match corresponding octet in network portion. Wildcard mask tells OSPF the part of network address that must be matched. Wildcard masks are explained with examples in access list tutorials of this category. 350c69d7ab


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